The bones in your body make up the whole skeleton structure. They provide the ability to interact with the environment and ables you to lift your body against gravity. The Bony structure also protects your organs from damage. The body’s calcium is stored in your bones. The levels of calcium decide the strength of your bones. Lower calcium levels of the bone are the indication that your bones are weak and vulnerable to fractures.
What Is A Fracture?
Bones are the rigid structure, even though they bend or break when an external force is applied. When the force is too high, your bones tend to break, just like a plastic ruler breaks if it bent too far. A fracture means a broken bone. It is a medical condition where the continuity of your bone is destroyed.
The severity of the fracture depends upon the force on the bone that caused the break. If the force on the bone is less, then the bone might crack instead of breaking all the way through. If the force is high on the bone, then it may shatter. If the bone shatters just like that, then the bone fragments penetrate out of the skin, or down to the broken bone, which is called an open fracture.
If a fracture involves only breaking of the bone without damaging surrounding tissues or the skin is known as a closed fracture. If a fracture caused by any underlying medical condition, then it is known as a pathological fracture.
Bone Fracture Repair in Hyderabad
There are several types of bone fractures ranges from a hairline crack to the bone being broken into two or more parts. A fracture might occur at the same time during a sprain, strain, or dislocation. The type of fracture depends upon the way the bone is broken, and the severity of the fracture.
- Transverse fracture – It is also called a longitudinal fracture. When a bone is fractured, the crack extends along the length of the bone.
- Oblique fracture – This type of fracture that occurs diagonally to a bone’s long axis.
- Comminuted fracture – This is a type of fracture the bone is shattered into two or more pieces.
- Greenstick fracture – This type of fractures mostly are common among children. The bones of children are softer and more elastic. When the bones subjected external force, they tend to bend and doesn’t break completely and bends like a young branch of a tree.
- Torus (buckle) fracture – This is a type of fracture where a bone deforms but doesn’t crack. It is a painful condition and more common in children.
- Open fracture – The bone fragments penetrate out of the skin, or down to the broken bone in an open fracture.
- Avulsion fracture – When a muscle or ligament pulls a piece of the bone fracturing it.
- Compression (crush) fracture – The bone is being crushed, making the broken bone wider or flatter in appearance.
- Fracture due to dislocation – When a joint got dislocated, and one in the joints has a fracture.
- Hairline fracture – A Hairline also called stress fractures. They are tiny cracks on a bone. These type of fractures are a little harder to detect with routine X-rays.
- Impacted fracture – The fragment of the fractured bone goes into another.
- Intraarticular fracture – When a bone is fractured, the break extends into the joint.
- Pathological fracture – If a fracture caused by any underlying medical condition, then it is known as a pathological fracture.
- Spiral fracture – The crack looks like a spiral around the bone, often seen in twisting of the bone.
The fractures in children and adults are different. As we age, the strength of our bones decreases and can’t withstand against large force. Whereas children’s bones are elastic, and they tend to be different.
Signs & Symptoms Of A Fracture:
The signs and symptoms vary according to a fractured bone, age, general health, and the severity of the injury. However, signs & symptoms include:
- Pain which increases with movement or when applied pressure at the site of the fracture
- A pop sound felt or heard at the time of the injury
- Swelling and bruising in the injured area
- Limited movement
- The affected bone might have a grating sensation
- Discoloured skin around the fractured area
Orthopedic Treatment Hyderabad
Treatment for broken bones depends on the severity of the fracture. An orthopaedic doctor carries out a physical examination, identifying signs and make a diagnosis. An X-ray and in some cases, an MRI or CT scan, might also be taken as part of the diagnosis.
The healing of a bone is a natural process. In most cases, healing occurs automatically. Fracture treatment aims to ensure the best possible function of the broken bone after healing.
To begin the natural healing process, the ends of the broken bone should be lined up first. It is known as reducing the fracture.
Immobilization – As soon as the broken bones are aligned, they need to stay aligned until they heal. It is also termed as casting. The immobilization techniques may include:
- Plaster casts or functional braces to hold the aligned bone in a position until the fracture healed.
- It is fixed with metal plates and screws through minimally invasive techniques.
- Internal metal rods called intramedullary nails are placed at the centre of long bones. In children, flexible wires are used.
- External fixators made of metal or carbon fibre to scaffold the broken bone from outside the body.
Traction is a method used to manage the fractures and dislocations that can’t be treated by casting. It is a process where force is applied to stretch certain body parts in a specific direction. The goal of traction procedure is to stretch the muscles, and tendons surrounding the broken bone to support the bone ends for proper alignment and healing.
Surgery For Fractures
Surgery might be needed to align severely broken bones back into place. The surgical procedure includes, internal fixation devices (metal rods or pins fixed inside the bone) or external fixation devices (metal rods or pins fixed outside of the body) to hold the broken bone fragments in a place for proper alignment and healing.
Delayed Unions and Non – Unions And Mal – Unions
- Non-unions are the fractures that fail to heal
- Delayed unions are the fractures that take longer time to heal
- Malunions occur due to improper alignment of bones during immobilization.
Delayed unions and non-unions are treated with the help of Ultrasound therapy to heal the fracture fastly, and when the fracture does not heal bone grafts are used to stimulate the broken bone. For more information, contact Dr Vausdev Juvvadi, an orthopaedic trauma surgeon in Hyderabad.